Male disorders and their implications for fertility

Knowledge of sperm production and its physiological hormonal functioning is of the utmost importance.

In a simple way we can say that the male has a function in sperm production similar to that of the menstrual cycle in women, but in a cruder and less complex way on the interaction of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Testicle axis.

In a simple way, we will illustrate how this axis intervenes for testicular stimulation. Diagram 1: Representation of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Testicle Axis.

Clínica Fertilidad


Sperm production at the testicular level (Spermatogenesis) takes place in the seminiferous ducts (seminal tubules) with a duration of 62 to 75 days and in three phases Fig.1:

  • Proliferative phase

  • Meiosis or Spermatogenesis

  • Spermiogenesis or Histogenesis

Espermatogénesis Testicular

Currently, fertility problems in men have been increasing alarmingly; This is probably due to the fact that every day we know and study men more.

Alterations in sperm quality is one of the main problems in male pathology and can be in several areas:

  • Volume of ejaculated seminal fluid

  • Number of spermatozoa per milliliter

  • Sperm motility

  • Sperm morphology

  • Sperm vitality

However, knowing that ejaculation is the combination of seminal fluid (60%), prostatic fluid (30%) and sperm (10%), is necessary to understand some of its alterations. The anatomical representation of the spermatic transit Fig.2, is important for the knowledge of some pathologies.

Fertilidad Masculina

Male Anatomy External Genitals and Sperm Transit

We will mention some of the problems in men that can alter or modify sperm quality, such as:

  • Smoking

  • Alcoholism

  • Obesity

  • Sedentary lifestyle

  • Agrochemical Products (fertilizers and/or pesticides)

  • Certain professions (Driver, Miners, Furnace Workers)

  • Trauma (testicular blows)

  • Infections

  • Genetic (Klinefelter syndrome and/or Y chromosome deletion)

  • Congenital (Cryptorchidism)

  • Tumors (testicular cancer)

  • Anatomical (Varicocele, Retractile testicles, Hydroceles)

  • Hyperprolactinemia (increased PRL)

“Men’s health is important at all stages of life from child to adolescent, to adulthood and old age.”

Dr. Otto Paredes
Dr. Otto Paredes
Fertility Expert
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