Papanicolaou or cytology, colposcopy and biopsy

93% of cervical uterine cancers are treatable if detected on time ♀️🎗✅ 🙋 and in #OctoberVScancer every Thursday is #VitalThursday your 1st consultation includes #Pap smear and breast and thyroid physical exams at no additional cost.

check yourself, check yourself CHECK YOURSELF! and stop giving cancer an advantage. Dr. Carlos Cortés, Surgeon Oncologist at Creafam, explains everything about the gynecology consultation and the studies to detect cervical cancer.

In the same way, we invite you to watch the following video: How to prevent and detect cancer [Breast, cervical and thyroid]

Schedule online and receive a discount on your first consultation.

There is a lot of confusion between what is a pap smear, a colposcopy, a biopsy and in general what should be done in a routine gynecological visit. Let’s start by making it clear that the first gynecological consultation must take place between the ages of 11 and 15, it is always done in the company of the mother. There is usually no examination of the sexual organs unless there are sources of alarm, but an interview is carried out with very personal questions about menstrual periods, relationships, habits and any anomaly that could be uncomfortable for some people, but they are carried out to identify any health complication, in fact, it is possible in this age group to start vaccinating against the human papilloma virus, since the vaccine is more effective before starting sexual life.

Subsequently, the gynecological consultation is carried out at least once a year, they can be carried out earlier if there are intense menstrual pains, irregular periods, pain during sexual intercourse, noting a lump in the breasts, identifying bad odors, infections or in general suspicions of anomalies. In these consultations, an examination of the organs can be carried out to confirm that everything is fine, but as we age we must begin to prevent the presence of cervical cancer, for this reason from the age of 25 a papanicolaou should be performed or two years later of having started a sexual life.

The Papanicolaou, or cervical cytology

The papanicolau or cervical cytology consists of introducing a vaginal mirror and a swab into the cervix and gently rubbing to collect some cells. These cells are analyzed in the laboratory, and normal cells have a single, small, well-defined nucleus. It is normal for there to be a few abnormal cells with larger nuclei or multiple nuclei or that appear to be attached to other cells.

The result of a Pap smear is subject to the doctor’s interpretation, so it is very important to perform it again the following year and assess whether the abnormal cells increase, decrease, or remain more or less the same. If the results come out normal for two years in a row, you can start having a pap smear every three years, however, a colposcopy is performed when you need to visualize the cervix, either because lesions are suspected or when the results of the pap smear point to towards a possibility of cancer or a human papillomavirus infection.


The colposcope works in a similar way to very powerful binoculars and with integrated light, usually the cervix looks uniform, but if there are spots, discolorations or texture changes, it is recommended to perform a biopsy of the area. The biopsy is a small cut made with forceps and in the laboratory we can observe many cells and how they are integrated into various layers of tissue.

A normal, healthy biopsy has small, young cells on the inside and increasingly large, mature cells as they move closer to the outside. Hyperplasia occurs when more cells are produced than normal, usually when there is a lot of stimulation or friction. Calluses on the tips of the fingers or soles of the feet are an example of hyperplasia and are relatively normal and treatable, but when the number of abnormal cells increases, they clump together, grow, and begin to invade other tissues. of a cancer.

The vast majority of cervical cancer-related deaths are due to patients who have never had a Pap smear or have not had one for more than five years.

“Truly, giving cancer five years ahead is too long, so stop giving it an advantage and come to Creafam. Remember that the most important thing is to prevent and detect it early”

Dr. Carlos A. Cortés
Dr. Carlos A. Cortés
Surgical oncologist
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